Starlight, Time, the Fabric of Space and the New Physics – Part 4

Dark matter required to uphold a galaxy.

Dark matter required to uphold a galaxy.

In this final installment on cosmological origins, the New Physics of Carmeli will be introduced.  I hope I can adequately  explain the simplicity and value of the new theory.  There are several very good reasons for desiring to present this new math.  Among the reasons is the search for truth.  Furthermore, its applicability eliminates entirely the use of mythological concepts like dark matter, dark energy and inflaton particles.  The most exciting reason to present these findings is the new way of looking at space, time and energy and how this new way of seeing reality refines our scientific models of observation.  This is done without denying our unique place as the center of the Universe.

In the discussion that follows it will become apparent that when God expanded the universe it started at some point in space.  This fact has become apparent as a scientific reality.  It further reveals the means by which the expansion created a time dilation effect.  This occurred when the stretch of space receded from the Earth.  A difference was created in the time experienced from an earthbound perspective versus time in the expanding Universe.     An intelligent creation event explains how light from billions of light years away from us became our view of the heavens in a single day, 6000 years ago.  In a nut shell, Carmelian physics explains the miracle of creation from observations and calculations of the material world.  The creation event is a miracle but the assessment of that event is a physical reality much like life is a miraculous product yet is understandable using biological science.

THE CHRISTIAN CONUNDRUM

Why is this latter point significant?  It is most important as this new understanding permits an explanation for the existence of a young earth of less than 7000 years of age that is illuminated by the stars of heaven having a deduced age of some 13 billion years or more.  For many fundamental believers in Christian theology the one great conundrum between the Genesis account and what we see in the night sky is the apparent age of the Universe  as determined by the light coming from very distant objects.  The redshift (discussed in Post 3) increases in proportion to the distance of the heavenly bodies as seen from Earth.  Provided the speed of light has always been constant, this increase in distance indicates that what we see is light that has travel billions of years to get to Earth.  Therefore, the objects should be billions of years old.  This is not to say that there are no problems with the deduction of billions of years.  There are many problems with this simplified approach to the problem of starlight and time.  But assuming this is a major deduction needing addressed, how can the Earth be 6000  years old in a Universe that appears to be billions of years old at the same time?

The Hubble Ultra Deep Space Photograph

The Hubble Ultra Deep Space Photograph.The Hubble Space Telescope captured data over a  period of 2.5 months looking in a region of space with a low density of bright (interfering) stars in the near-field view. This image contains some 10,000 galaxies. The image covers an area around 0.1 times the diameter of the moon as seen from earth or a square 1mm by 1mm of paper held 1 meter (1000x) further away. Another way of putting it is this image is one thirteen-millionth (1:13,000,000) of the area of the sky.

 

DIFFICULTIES WITH SCIENTIFIC COMMITMENTS TO MATERIALISM

For certain, the materialistic cosmologists have many problems with the big bang theory beyond dark matters and dark energies.  How is it that the cosmic background radiation that is supposed to be the same in every direction and yet matter is found to adhere to concentric rings spaced evenly from the Earth.?    The fact is that CMB radiation is hotter and denser in some locations and thinner in others as well, potentially giving some directional clue to the initial expansion of the Universe.  We must deny the current big bang cosmology of an expansion since this is so, yet the redshift and the distribution of matter say something has expanded, providing the Earth is the center of the Universe (or pretty close to it)! Furthermore, saying the Universe is isotropic AND homogeneous, as Hubble decided, denies many facts that we observe in the distribution of matter in space such as the structures of galaxies and galactic clusters.  The new physics holds isotropy for the CMB radiation but for no other observations.  As the New Physics is explained it will become increasingly apparent that a solution to cosmology is closer than ever before.  Not as a new fashion but as a theorem having genuine explanatory power, provided we accept the facts of science and not the fiction of current cosmology.  Other problems in cosmology include the rotation of stars, galaxies, super galactic clusters and the inordinate speed with which these objects spin are also explained.  Also, current cosmology says that there are no first generation stars anywhere in the Universe; all current stars are the products of the original stars dying again and again.  Cosmology is in need of some serious repair.

THE GIFT OF BRILLIANCE AND OBJECTIVITY

Much credit must be given to Dr. John Harnett, an Australian astronomer, who in collaboration with Moshe Carmeli and his new physics, popularized this new way of thinking of space, starlight and time.  [Dr. Carmeli was an Albert Einstein Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Ben Gurion University in Israel. He died in 2007].  Aware that cosmologist had to rely on very few measurements from observation, just the redshift and the luminosity of stars, it was apparent from the redshift that both velocity and distance of stars, and gases and galaxies could be calculated.  Hubble’s law convincingly demonstrated that the distance of an object was proportionate to the amount of the redshift of light coming from that object; the greater the redshift of light, the further the distance of the object from Earth.  However, the rotational velocities of galaxies and other superstructures could not be explained by the linear relationship between the redshift of light and luminous objects. Something is holding the structure of spiral galaxies and assemblages of galactic clusters together and gravity does not seem to be the force. The philosophical development of exotic matter and energies were literally fudge factors that in today’s scientific and educational forum have been taken as facts.  Nothing could be further from the truth.

THE FIFTH DIMENSION

Harnett

Harnett

 

Carmeli

Carmeli

Carmeli’s physics in combination with Harnett’s continued development of the math eliminated dark imaginations when space was recognized to have properties beyond Einstein’s theory of special relativity.  That is, while Einstein had shown space to have properties of its own, they were dependent on the gravitational force of matter.  Matter curves space.  While one might argue that space is nothing and gravity is everything, Carmeli/Harnett’s physics gave space the properties of an elastic fabric that expands with a velocity proportional to the distance from Earth, independent of matter.  The stretch of the “vacuum” of space has been measured and it solves the “missing matter” problem for rotating objects.  For example: there is no need for a gravitational factor that is 4 times greater than the masses that illuminate our own galaxy to exist in order to maintain the integrity of our galaxy.  Dark matter is not needed.

The required  mathematical parameters required a 5th dimension. This dimension is velocity; a motion attributable, not to matter expanding to create space, but space expanding to create matter.  The first three dimensions are derived from the 3 dimensions of matter in space; depth, height and width.   The fourth dimension is time.  The fifth dimension becomes velocity and with this recognition the new physics agrees with many other astrological findings; that space is not empty but a fabric independent of matter.

When applied to super-structures, like a rotating galaxy, the movement of space as it expands can account for the velocity of the peripheral matter in the spiral arms or outer regions (interstellar or intergalactic regions) of space, including ionized gases. This stretching of space accounts for the apparent inordinate velocities of matter as it rotates around the inner core of a galaxy.  In effect, the material that is distant from the core of a galaxy matches the motion of the inner core of the galaxy much like the edge of a vinyl record album matches the speed of the center of the album.  It is as though matter is embedded in the fabric of space.  In fact, the observations conclude that this is so.

What we observe should not hold true in a big bang model.  Rotating objects like galaxies should toss their stars out and away from the rotating core by centrifugal force alone. Furthermore, the new physics holds true for larger structures in the Universe such as clusters of galaxies that appear to rotate around a common center.  The application of Carmelian physics prove that galaxies are not expanding away from us, though their rotational velocity is real.  Instead, it is the fabric of space that carries galaxies at a velocity that is dependent on the distance from the point of origin of the expansion.  This point of origin is required to be the Earth, or very near the Earth. This agrees with Hubble’s discovery though, as an atheist, he found it horrifying.  The recessional velocities of galaxies and gases should now be understood to occur as matter is carried away from our position.  The exploding model of the big bang becomes obsolete.

INVOKING MYTHS TO COVER-UP SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS

Our nearest neighbor: the Andromeda Galaxy, a spiral galaxy.

Our nearest neighbor: the Andromeda Galaxy, a spiral galaxy.

In a rotating galaxy, say a spiral galaxy, if the rotational velocities of stars and gases are plotted against their distance from the central core, the plot observed is called the critical acceleration curve. To date, it has not been explained without invoking gravity from an unseen material called dark matter.  The amount of dark matter required varies with the size of the structure being supported at those velocities.  However, the dark matter needed for gravity to support the normal matter is not in proportion to the total mass being considered in the overall rotation. For instance, while the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy requires 4 to 5 times more matter than exists in order to maintain rotational velocities some galactic cluster formations are missing 100 to 300 times the matter to explain their stable rotations.  Here the correlation of dark matter to normal matter is not a linear function as should be expected.  Therefore dark matter does not follow the very definition it was given. Dark matter just does not work as a fundamental law of astronomy.  It is make-believe and a failed hypothesis at best.

 

GOD HAS A CLAIM ON THE STRETCH OF SPACE

The Bible says that when God made the sun, moon and stars he did so on day four.  Twenty-four hours passed in the formation of the starry heavens.  How did God do this?  The Genesis account is silent but many times in the Bible it is revealed that God created the stars by “stretching out the heavens”.  See these scriptures:

“He wraps himself in light as with a garment; he stretches out the heavens like a tent” (Psalm 104:2).

“He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in” (Isaiah 40:22).

“This is what God the Lord says—he who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and all that comes out of it, who gives breath to its people, and life to those who walk on it” (Isaiah 42:5).

“This is what the Lord says—your Redeemer, who formed you in the womb: I am the Lord, who has made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens” (Isaiah 44:24).

Thus saith God Jehovah, he that created the heavens, and stretched them forth; he that spread abroad the earth and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:  Isaiah 42:4-6

Fabric of space spread out as a tent.

Fabric of space spread out as a tent.

I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens; and all their host have I commanded.  Isaiah 45:11-13

…and hast forgotten Jehovah thy Maker, that stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and fears continually all the day because of the fury of the oppressor, when he makes ready to destroy? and where is the fury of the oppressor?  Isaiah 51:12-14

He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and by his understanding hath he stretched out the heavens:  Jeremiah 10:11-12

He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and by his understanding hath he stretched out the heavens:  Jeremiah 51:15

The burden of the word of Jehovah concerning Israel. Thus sayeth Jehovah, who stretches forth the heavens, and laid the foundation of the earth, and formed the spirit of man within him:  Zechariah 12:1-3

This idea that the heavens were created by stretching of space like a fabric to create a habitation for the stars, however poetic it might sound, finds truth in the recent discoveries of our modern cosmological model.  At least it fits the data.  Let’s see how this is true.

HOW THE NEW PHYSICS PROVE TRUE

We have discussed the critical acceleration curve (Figure 1).  Applying the Carmelian physics to several thousand points of light associated with galaxies and plotting them on the critical acceleration curve (Figure 2) experimentally demonstrates that the 5th dimension accounts for what appeared to be missing mass (and hence missing gravity).  This has proven true without the use of vain imaginations like dark matter.  This has also been applied to galactic clusters that should not be rotating around a common center with the velocities that they do, unless space is stretching in every direction, effectively carrying the objects embedded therein.

Figure 1;  Observed rotational velocities (critical acceleration curve) (B) versus expected velocities (A).

Figure 1; Observed rotational velocities (critical acceleration curve) (B) versus expected velocities (A).

Application of Newtonian physics has permitted an understanding of the movement of masses (stars) at the central core of galaxies.  Here, mass times gravity divided by the radius from the core is equal to the second power of the velocity.  The expansion of space in such a tight orbital analysis is negligible.  Or, V2= GM/r where V is velocity, G is gravity, M is mass and r is the distance or radius from the core.   But to explain the maintenance of matter found to be rotating tangential to the core suggests either a gravitation deficiency (invoke dark matter) or must consider the velocity of the expansion of space into the equation… the 5th dimension of the Universe.  Carmelian physics shows that the relation of the velocity of matter at these distances is to the 4th power or V4 = GM ⅔a0 .   Note: The factor ⅔a0 is the critical rotational acceleration that must be explained by the observations.  Secular science would accept dark matter to explain the fit of observation to this factor.  Carmelian physics recognizes the expansion of the fabric of space to explain that factor.  Exciting to Christians is an explanation of how God hold’s up the universe by the power of his word; He has stretch out the heavens like a tent.

NGC 6503... only the Carmelian physics lies atop the

Figure 2: The plot of galaxy NGC 6503… only the Carmelian physics lies atop the critical acceleration curve (dots lay atop the uppermost curve). Evidence that God stretched out the heavens like a tent.

 

Several important features of the cosmos must be repeated at this point.  First, from our vantage point the universe is isotropic and the background microwave radiation supports this fact.  This highly homogeneous temperature may or may not have anything to do with an explosion but it appears to be indicative of a single event that stretched out space in very, very brief period of time relative to the earth.  Otherwise the residual heat should not be evenly distributed as it is.  Secondly, the redshift follows Hubble’s law but this supports a spherical and bounded (having an expanding edge) universe having an origin or center that, for all practical and observable scientific purposes, must be the Earth or somewhere very near the Earth; a fact of science Hubble deliberately denied. Thirdly, the motion of rotating masses in the universe cannot be supported by older physics.  It is an unexplainable phenomenon that, because of Hubble’s commitment to atheism, has led cosmologists to require dark matter and later, dark energies to be invoked.  What we actually observe in the night sky is a finite, bounded universe that is spherical; Earth being the central location for the initial inflation event.  Fourthly, from the Sloan Digital Map Survey (Figure 3 below) mentioned in the previous post number 3, matter is not homogeneously distributed but literally follows a pattern of spherical shells spaced 100 million light years apart; the Earth, once again,  has been proven scientifically to be the center of the cosmos.

Curve of observed critical rotational acceleration

Graphic illustration of how the plot of the observed critical acceleration curve versus expected gravitational rotation of matter was obtained.

Finite, spherical, bounded universe - fits observational science.

Finite, spherical, bounded universe – fits observational science.

 

WELL SO WHAT!?

How does this help us understand biblical revelation?  We have asserted that the current features of the Universe suggest strongly that the age of distant objects appear to be millions and even billions of years old.  The redshift indicates this distance and the constant speed of light (300,000 kg/sec) virtually guarantees this distance.  But the Bible says the earth was created in 6 literal days.  While we could invoke a bundle of myths and non-scientific concepts to explain away reality, good science is found to support belief in God’s revelation that He stretched out the heavens as a habitation for the stars.  Einstein’s theory of general relativity and Carmeli’s new physics actually account for what we see in the Universe post facto of the creation.  Science supports the biblical account and we are in a unique position in the Universe.  This is scientific proof that Genesis is not only plausible but is historical.    This is wonderful!

The events of the fourth day of creation attribute to God the rapid expansion of the cosmos.  This massive acceleration is required by either the expansion of mass by a big bang of the secular scientists or the acceleration of the stretching of space by creationists.  Either way a time dilation effect had to have occurred where the clock on Earth ticks at one rate and the clock of the expanding cosmos ticks much faster; a factor of around 1 trillion times; providing we accept the scientific observations of Earth’s central location in the cosmos.  At some point, the expansion may have ceased yet we continue to see the receding motion of the after effects of the creation event of the heavens on that fourth day of creation.

Sloan digital survey and the non homogeneous distribution of matter in the universe.

Figure 3: Sloan digital survey and the NON homogeneous distribution of matter in the universe.

THE ANSWER

Time dilation allows for light to reach the Earth in our 24 hour period making the moon, sun and stars visible while the stretch of space expands for billions of years.  Our earth based clock ticks at one speed while the expanding universe ticks a trillion times faster.  The cosmic background radiation may be a remnant of this event that would have unfolded in that brief earth day… thus the isotropy; the even distribution of this cosmic heat.  But redshift, non homogeneity of matter, galactic clusters in concentric rings and Carmeli’s prediction of the acceleration of space at the boundaries of the visible Universe (discovered through his mathematics 2 years before his prediction was discovered to be true) all support our unique position in space.  And this supports a creative act by a First Cause (God) who created the starry heavens in 24 hours of Earth’s time.

Genesis 1:14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons,[f] and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. 16 And God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. 17 And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

Genesis 1:14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. 16 And God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. 17 And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

The new physics continue to be developed further.  However, they do show that a new relativity theory leads to the acceptance of what can be seen; a spherical, bounded universe, that supports a time dilation effect.  This explains how the most distant starlight was able to travel for billions of years to reach the newly created Earth in a single day relative to our ticking clock.

The idea that time dilation played a role in the formation of the cosmos was first considered by Dr. Humphrey and is found in some detail in his book, “Starlight and Time”.  His adoption of the big bang, or more correctly white hole – the reverse of a singularity, allowed for the existence of an event horizon associated with the singularity.  The event horizon is understood to be a region of space where gravitational entrapment of objects is irreversible.  The force of gravity is so large that objects caught in the pull experience time dilation… time slows down and virtually stops.  For an onlooker anything caught at the event horizon is immediately obliterated out of existence as it is absorbed and crushed by the gravity of the singularity.  But for a person conscious and caught in the event horizon, time does not exist.  In a white hole the same holds true but in reverse – the event horizon travels outward.  This feature of gravity and time was proven true through Einstein’s equations of relativity.  Harnett took advantage of this reality and applied to Carmelian physics, it explains the background microwave radiation isotropy, the visibility of ancient light to a world of only 6000 years of age and the Carmelian prediction that the edges of the universe, where boundary does exist, are accelerating.   It further validates the multiple passages that admit to God’s creative power in stretching out space to create both time and matter.

 

THE ALTERNATIVE: A DARK MATTER MAP!  DO YOU SEE IT?

THE ALTERNATIVE: A DARK MATTER MAP! DO YOU SEE IT? 

 

 

There are many more amazing facets of the application of this new physics to understanding the Universe without invoking myths and violating materialistic commitments to scientific discovery.  One of these, and I will end here, is the fact that events that we see unfolding at the edges of the universe are literally remnants of that fourth day of expansion.  The accelerations we detect, which were predicted by Carmelian physics, are in fact the relics of an event that occurred 6000 Earth years ago.

WHAT THIS MEANS: WE ARE STILL SEEING CREATION EVENTS?

This amazing feature of the “stretching” of the fabric of space means the energy of expansion must be converted.   Since a force is required to stretch the fabric of space and at such extreme acceleration, the fabric should release energy as it yields to the expansion.

 

Galactic clusters

Galactic clusters

This could be in the form of heat or some other strange radiation.  One hypothesis that seems credible is that 1a supernovas, only seen at the edge of the universe where expansion is accelerating, are not the death of any star or galaxy.  It may be that as we gaze into the night sky with our powerful telescopes we are seeing the formation of galaxies that are just now revealing their birth to us through starlight and time.  Imagine that!  That we may be beholding a fraction of magnificence of God’s power over nature as it took place 6000 years ago.  These may be the creation of new worlds waiting for us to explore, and made for the thousands of generations yet to enjoy in the Messianic age, world without end.  Amen.

What an exciting time to live!

 Carina Nebula

 

Psalm 19

1 The heavens declare the glory of God,
    and the sky above proclaims his handiwork.
Day to day pours out speech,
    and night to night reveals knowledge.
There is no speech, nor are there words,
    whose voice is not heard.
Their voice goes out through all the earth,
    and their words to the end of the world.
In them he has set a tent for the sun,
    which comes out like a bridegroom leaving his chamber,
    and, like a strong man, runs its course with joy.
Its rising is from the end of the heavens,
    and its circuit to the end of them,
    and there is nothing hidden from its heat.

 

 

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