I have made much over the statements of Edwin Hubble in regards to his fantastic assertions about the structure of the cosmos. I have made much over his theoretical position since it is diametrically opposite to his actual findings and the confirmation of those findings by all astronomers since. You see, Hubble discovered the redshift of light coming from distant light sources as well as the fact that those very distant light sources, once called stars, were actually galaxies of stars. For sure Hubble made some remarkable discoveries. The redshift demonstrated that the universe was receding, pulling away, from planet earth. The greater the redshift, the greater the distance of the object emitting the light. This was true for any observation point and for any season of observation on our planet.
This immediately indicated to Hubble that the Earth was the point of origin for the universe! But his religious beliefs prevented him from accepting the scientific facts and caused him to describe a universe in terms that are neither accurate nor scientific. His religion, a preconceived bias on the point and purpose of the existence of the universe, interfered with his actual scientific discoveries and his personal prejudices not only created a universe that does not exist but has seriously fouled up the science of cosmology and astronomy ever since. You see, Hubble was a devout atheist.
Hubble’s belief that God does not exist forced him to reject the discovery that the Earth is the center of the universe. His discovery suggested that the Earth was special, an idea he abhorred. He decided to describe a universe which was homogenous in both matter and energy. He also decided the universe must be isotropic. This means that where ever one is in the cosmos they should also see the redshifts in a way that they too would be inclined to believe that their world was the center of the universe. He assumed a number of things about this type of universe in order to faithfully reject the idea that our planet is special. The Bible makes no statement about the “start point” for the universe, although it does speak of the earth being created first, followed by sun moon and stars. The Bible does begin with Earth as the primary focus of the universe making our home, a very special place indeed. Hubble’s discovery immediately indicated to him that since all things were moving away from our planet we must be at the center of it all and therefore Earth is the point of origin for the universe. This so grieved him that he described a universe in terms that were in direct contrast to his discovery. This is not scientific.
This discovery led the science of astronomy to develop a new model to describe the cosmos. The model suggested that, from our vantage point on Earth, the entire universe was expanding outwards; outwards and away from our planet. The further away from the planet, the faster the objects in the universe were receding. This observation vanquished the static state model of the universe. The steady state model had assumed that the universe had always existed; it was eternal and never-changing. The redshift model meant that the motion of the objects in the universe could be due to an expansion of matter in space and time. An expansion implies a beginning. A beginning implies a first cause; someone or something had initiated the expansion.
Hubble wrote: “The assumption of uniformity has much to be said in its favour. If the distribution were not uniform, it would either increase with distance, or decrease. But we would not expect to find a distribution in which the density increases with distance, symmetrically in all directions. Such a condition would imply that we occupy a unique position in the universe, analogous, in a sense, to the ancient conception of a central earth. The hypothesis cannot be disproved but it is unwelcome and would be accepted only as a last resort in order to save the phenomena. Therefore, we disregard this possibility and consider the alternative, namely, a distribution which thins out with distance.
The departures from uniformity are positive; the numbers of nebulae increase faster than the volume of space through which they are scattered. Thus the density of the nebular distribution increases outwards, symmetrically in all directions, leaving the observer in a unique position. Such a favoured position, of course, is intolerable; moreover, it represents a discrepancy with the theory, because the theory postulates homogeneity. Therefore, in order to restore homogeneity, and to escape the horror of a unique position, the departures from uniformity, which are introduced by the recession factors, must be compensated by the second term representing effects of spatial curvature.”
Note: this hypothesis cannot be disproved… it is unwelcome…we disregard this possibility…such a favored position is intolerable… in order… to escape the horror of this unique position… the departures from uniformity (his theory) … must be compensated.
Since that time, we have continued studying the stars to find that there is an order and “architecture” to the universe and that it undeniably indicates that planet Earth is special with regards to that order. We have found that the redshift is “quantized”. That is, it has periodic velocities based upon the placement of matter at defined distances from the Earth. We have discovered that matter, galaxies and stars, clump together on spherical shells, far removed from the earth. Each shell is separated by a 3.1 million light years before the next shell of concentrated matter is found. These shells continue outward for billions of light years; as far out as our ability to detect light. What’s more important is that our planet is the center of these shells of matter. Calculations indicate that if we could move 2 million light years from Earth that these concentric rings of matter would blur, a clear indication that one MUST be at the center of the universe to be able to determine the shell structure.
Click on the link below for a spectacular view of the cosmic map in 3-D.
Furthermore, in the 1970s, evidence was gathered from telescopic observation all over the earth that showed that the universe was not homogeneous as Hubble had promised; therefore it could not be isotropic. The cosmic microwave background radiation was supposed to be a homogeneous 2.73 degrees Kelvin in temperature. But minor fluctuations in temperatures indicated a pattern to the structure of the universe. Huge lumps of this radiation seemed to accumulate in specific places in outer space. So the COBE space probe was sent up in 1990 to take a “closer” look. COBE showed that the lumps were not random, nor were they homogeneous. They seemed to be aligned on a plane that demarcates the entire universe into two hemispheres. Scientists could not accept this finding and be skeptical sent up the WMAP probe in 2001. This was the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe; or the “lump” finding probe which is the meaning of anisotropy.
The information from this probe showed that the plane upon which the CMB radiation lumped itself was highly organized. What was really fascinating was the fact that the imaginary plane actually exists and it aligns with the very axis of the tilt of the earth; having a tilt of 23.5 degrees and the plane of the ecliptic which is the plane the planet travels around the sun on this tilted axis. The Copernican hypothesis and everything we thought we knew about cosmology have been doomed. Copernican cosmology specifically rejects any “special” places in the cosmos; especially the earth. Because big bang cosmology is threatened the plane of demarcation has been dubbed the “Axis of Evil.”
Lawrence Krauss (an American theoretical physicist and cosmologist who is Foundation Professor of the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University) commented in 2005:
“But when you look at [the cosmic microwave background] map, you also see that the structure that is observed, is in fact, in a weird way, correlated with the plane of the earth around the sun. Is this Copernicus coming back to haunt us? That’s crazy. We’re looking out at the whole universe. There’s no way there should be a correlation of structure with our motion of the earth around the sun — the plane of the earth around the sun — the ecliptic. That would say we are truly the center of the universe.”
If this was not enough, two other such lumpy discoveries were also found which aligned with opposite spheres of the ecliptic of our planet. In other words, visualize the circle of the ecliptic being extended out throughout the universe. The lumpiness of the temperature variations of the redshift throughout the universe is found at opposite ends of this imaginary plane. One hemisphere is hotter than the other. The scientists’ response; send up another probe.
So in 2009 the Planck probe was sent out and gathered even more precise information on the same observations.
What does this mean? It is more evidence that the universe has an origin and it relates to the existence of our planet. It suggests that the point of origin of the universe is known; something we should expect if the universe had a beginning in time. It is as though the point of origin for the beginning of space, time and matter is not only our planet but that our planet’s rotation around the sun and our axis of tilt are markers or foundation points for the expansion of the universe. These markers established the architecture of the universe.
More data: Using the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the light from 93 quasars was put through a polarized lens to understand their rotation. Quasars are the brightest objects in the universe but no one knows much more than this. These “polarized quasars” which spanned trillions of miles from earth and trillions of miles from each other were all simultaneously spinning parallel to the axis of the Earth’s tilt. Together these data are a powerful testimony to the existence of phenomena that are above and beyond the natural order of things. It is like stepping back from a close up at an oil painting of an unrecognizable patchwork of color only to find, at some distance, an image of a person looking back at you. It is like discovering that a rock is an arrowhead or that a stone is a fossilized skull. What at first seemed random turned out to be deliberate but this time on the scale of the universe.
What this means is that there is either a communication string between these objects that forces them to align in synchrony or there is a predetermined structure to the universe that relates to the existence of planet Earth and its movement in space. This phenomenon cannot be a random alignment since the objects vary in distance from the earth and from one another. There is a large scale order to the universe and it has something to do with planet Earth. This is called geocentricity; the idea that the earth is the center of the universe.
Even more data: Recently it was noted that the accretion disks formed from black holes that are believed to reside at the center of galaxies create jets of high-velocity matter which stream away from the center of the hole forming jets at opposite poles of the rotating object. These jets are observed parallel to the “Axis of Evil.” This too is an indication that these jets of energetic matter have large-scale coherence in their angular momentum though separated by trillions of miles[i]. For those jets that fall near the imaginary tilt of the earth’s axis, a 23.5-degree position is found with respect to the vertical orientation of each object. This is another indication that galactic spin is in alignment with planet Earth. As one writer put it, “What we have, and which is very easily observable, are cosmic axes (e.g., the quadrupole, octupole and dipole axes that make up the Axis of Evil) around which all the microwave radiation in the universe is aligned, and we are in the center of it.”
Looking into other discoveries in astronomy we find that the spin of galaxies on one side of the plane of the ecliptic, to the “North” of our own Milky Way galaxy (which happens to also align with the Axis of Evil), galaxies spin predominantly counterclockwise. South of the ecliptic, the spin is predominantly clockwise. Over half of the 15,000 spiral galaxies examined above the plane had a preferential spin counterclockwise. An earlier study of over 8200 galaxies south of the plane showed a clockwise rotational preference. This could only be true if the universe was rotating around planet earth.
Not everyone is so convinced of this. Current cosmologists deny that the cosmic background radiation is “structured.” Many have stopped using the name, “Axis of Evil,” simply because it refers specifically to something they don’t want to highlight. Many call these findings, anomalies. Others just ignore the finding altogether, saying humans always find patterns in the random things of nature.
One bold investigator simply says that it appears the universe is actually rotating around the earth. This is a very old French school of thought, ignored by Copernican advocates but cherished even today by astute students of this frame of reference. These are people who believe that the Earth is fixed in space, unmoving and unmovable, and the Universe literally revolves around it.
Many cosmologists find the various CMB alignments extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance. Moreover, nearly all the alignments point to the solar system’s motion or the orientation of the ecliptic plane of the Earth. Is there a deeper explanation?
“But when you look at CMB map, you also see that the structure that is observed, is in fact, in a weird way, correlated with the plane of the earth around the sun. Is this Copernicus coming back to haunt us? That’s crazy. We’re looking out at the whole universe. There’s no way there should be a correlation of structure with our motion of the earth around the sun — the plane of the earth around the sun — the ecliptic. That would say we are truly the center of the universe.”
And while many deny geocentrism, it is based on a frame of reference that cannot be denied. Viewing the universe from planet earth establishes a bias hard to ignore. The Sun “sets” in the west. The moon “rises.” And where we determine what we see as moving. For instance, North America looks south to point to the equator. Australians look North to do the same. So the motion is relative unless it is not. That is, if the earth is held static, then the universe is indeed moving around the planet. The strange thing is, our entire cosmology now says that this is true; independent of where we stand, independent of our frame of reference! What was once determined by Hubble as preposterous is proving to be fact? Our world is not some insignificant blue dot revolving around a common star in some obscure region of a typical galaxy. We are a special place. For more than a decade we have known the facts about our world. We are unique in every way and it is time to accept our position in the universe and take responsibility for it.
[i] Alignments of Radio Galaxies in Deep Imaging of ELAIS N1, March 2016, MNRAS, p. 1).